The Missourians had the advantage of position and fired, but the Mormons continued to advance. The state militia broke ranks and fled across the river.
Although Mormons won the battle , they took heavier casualties than the Missourians. Of the Missourians, only one, Moses Rowland , was killed. On the Mormon side, Gideon Carter was killed in the battle and nine other Mormons were wounded, including Patten, who soon after died from his wounds. News of the battle quickly spread and contributed to an all-out panic in northwestern Missouri. Exaggerated initial reports indicated that nearly all of Bogart's company had been killed.
The citizens of Daviess, Carroll, and some other counties have raised mob after mob for the last two months for the purpose of driving a group of mormons from those counties and from the State. While the state militia gathered, Missourian vigilante parties continued to act on their own, driving Latter Day Saints inward to Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman.
Boggs held strong preconceptions against the Latter Day Saints, dating from the time when both he and they had lived in Jackson County, and the governor believed the reports. Although he had refrained from stopping the illegal anti-Mormon siege of De Witt, he now mustered 2, state militia to put down what he perceived to be a Mormon insurrection against the state.
Possibly playing on Rigdon's July 4 sermon that talked of a "war of extermination," Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44 , also known as the "Extermination Order," on October 27, which stated that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace Agitation against the Latter Day Saints had become particularly fierce in the sparsely settled counties north and east of Caldwell County. The Daviess County men were very bitter against the Mormons, and vowed the direst vengeance on the entire sect. It did not matter whether or not the Mormons at [Haun's] mill had taken any part in the disturbance which had occurred [in Daviess County]; it was enough that they were Mormons.
The Livingston men became thoroughly imbued with the same spirit, and were eager for the raid Although it had just been issued, it is unlikely that the governor's "Extermination Order" would have already reached these men, and in any event it would not have authorized them to cross into Caldwell County to raid.
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In addition, none of the participants in the raid cited the order as justification for their actions. On October 29, this large vigilante band of some men assembled and entered eastern Caldwell County. When the Missourian raiders approached the settlement on the afternoon of October 30, some 30 to 40 Latter Day Saint families were living or encamped there.
Despite an attempt by the Mormons to parley, the mob attacked. When McBride held out a hand, Rogers cut it off with a corn knife, then may have further mangled his body while McBride was still alive. While Mormon women and children scattered and hid in the surrounding woods and nearby homes, Mormon men and boys rallied to defend the settlement. They moved into a blacksmith shop, which they hoped to use as a makeshift defensive fortification.
Unfortunately, the shop had large gaps between the logs which the Missourians shot into and, as one Mormon later recalled, it became more "slaughter-house rather than a shelter. After most of the defenders in the blacksmith shop had been killed or mortally wounded, some of the Missourians entered to finish the work.
Finding year-old Sardius Smith hiding behind the bellows, William Reynolds of Livingston County shot and killed the boy, saying: None of the Missourians were ever prosecuted for their role in the Haun's Mill Massacre. Major General Samuel D. Lucas marched the state militia to Far West and laid siege to the Mormon headquarters.
Surrounded by the state militia, the mood in besieged Far West was uneasy. Joseph Smith ordered Colonel George M. Hinkle , the head of the Mormon militia in Caldwell County, to ride out and meet with General Lucas to seek terms. According to Hinkle, Smith wanted a treaty with the Missourians "on any terms short of battle.
Lucas' terms were severe. The Latter-day Saints were to give up their leaders for trial and to surrender all of their arms. Every Mormon who had taken up arms was to sell his property to pay for the damages to Missourian property and for the muster of the state militia. Finally, the Mormons who had taken up arms were to leave the state.
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Colonel Hinkle rode to the church leaders in Far West and informed them of the offered terms. According to Latter Day Saint witness Reed Peck, when Smith was told that the Mormons would be expected to leave the state, he replied that "he did not care" and that he would be glad to get out of the "damnable state" anyway.
The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. Joseph Smith and the other arrested leaders were held overnight under guard in General Lucas' camp, where they were left exposed to the elements. Joseph Smith Jr attempted to negotiate with Lucas, but it became clear that Lucas considered his conditions to be non-negotiable. General Clark made the following speech to the brethren on the public square The Far West militia was marched out of the city and forced to turn over their weapons to General Lucas.
The men under the command of Lucas were then allowed to ransack the city to search for weapons.
The soldiers shot down our oxen, cows, hogs and fowls, at our own doors, taking part away and leaving the rest to rot in the streets. The soldiers also turned their horses into our fields of corn. Lucas tried Joseph Smith and other Mormon leaders by court martial on November 1, the evening of the surrender. After the court martial, he ordered General Alexander William Doniphan:. You will take Joseph Smith and the other prisoners into the public square of Far West and shoot them at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning.
It is cold-blooded murder. I will not obey your order. My brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock, and if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God! The defendants, consisting of about 60 men including Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon, were turned over to a civil court of inquiry in Richmond under Judge Austin A.
King , on charges of treason , murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny and perjury. During a transfer to another prison in the spring of , Smith escaped. The exact circumstances that allowed for him to escape are not certain. John Whitmer recounts that Smith bribed the guards. It is also believed that Smith's imprisonment had become an embarrassment, and that an escape would be convenient for Boggs and the rest of the Missouri political establishment.
Smith and the other Mormons resettled in Nauvoo, Illinois , beginning in Daviess County residents were outraged by the escape of Smith and the other leaders. William Bowman, one of the guards, was dragged by his hair across the town square. Sheriff Morgan was ridden through town on an iron bar , and died shortly afterward from the injuries he suffered during the ride. General Clark viewed Executive Order 44 as having been fulfilled by the agreement of the Mormons to evacuate the state the following spring.
Missouri blamed the Mormons for the conflict and forced the Latter-day Saints to sign over all their lands in order to pay for the state militia muster. Mormon leaders appealed to the state legislature to overturn the requirement that they leave the state, but the legislature tabled the issue until a date well after that when the Mormons would have left the state.
With the refusal of the Governor or Legislature to intervene, and having surrendered the bulk of their firearms, Mormons were left nearly defenseless to face the mob. Stripped of their property, the Mormons were then given a few months to leave the state. Most refugees made their way east to Illinois, where residents of the town of Quincy helped them. When faced with the Mormon refugees from Missouri, the people of Quincy, Illinois, were outraged by the treatment the Mormons had experienced.
That the gov of Missouri, in refusing protection to this class of people when pressed upon by an heartless mob, and turning upon them a band of unprincipled Militia, with orders encouraging their extermination, has brought a lasting disgrace upon the state over which he presides. Eventually, the large portion of the Mormons regrouped and founded a new city in Illinois which they called Nauvoo. When events in Daviess County caused Missourians to see the Mormon community as a violent threat, non-Mormon public opinion hardened in favor of a firm military response.
Even militia commanders such as Clark, Doniphan, and Atchison who were sympathetic to the Mormons came to see a military response as the only way to bring the situation under control. Many of Boggs's constituents felt that he had mis-managed the situation, by failing to intervene earlier in the crisis, and then by overreacting on the basis of partial and incorrect information. The Missouri Argus published an editorial on December 20, , that public opinion should not permit the Mormons to forcibly be expelled from the state:.
They cannot be driven beyond the limits of the state—that is certain. To do so, would be to act with extreme cruelty. Public opinion has recoiled from a summary and forcible removal of our negro population;—much more likely will it be to revolt at the violent expulsion of two or three thousand souls, who have so many ties to connect them with us in a common brotherhood. If they choose to remain, we must be content. The day has gone by when masses of men can be outlawed, and driven from society to the wilderness, unprotected. The refinement, the charity of our age, will not brook it.
Even people who otherwise would have had no sympathy for the Mormons were appalled by Boggs's Executive Order and the treatment of the Mormons by the mobs. One contemporary critic of the Mormons wrote:. Mormonism is a monstrous evil; and the only place where it ever did or ever could shine, this side of the world of despair, is by the side of the Missouri mob.
LeSueur notes that, along with other setbacks, Boggs's mishandling of the Mormon conflict left him "politically impotent" by the end of his term. On May 6, , Boggs was shot in the head at his home three blocks from Temple Lot.
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Reynolds discovered a revolver at the scene, still loaded with buckshot. He surmised that the perpetrator had fired upon Boggs and lost his firearm in the night when the weapon recoiled due to its unusually large shot. The gun was found to have been stolen from a local shopkeeper, who identified "that hired man of Ward's" as the most likely culprit.
Reynolds determined the man in question was Porter Rockwell , a close associate of Joseph Smith. However, Reynolds was unable to capture Rockwell. Bennett , a disaffected Mormon, reported that Smith had offered a cash reward to anyone who would assassinate Boggs, and that Smith had admitted to him that Rockwell had done the deed. Joseph Smith vehemently denied Bennett's account, speculating that Boggs—no longer governor, but campaigning for state senate—was attacked by an election opponent. One historian notes that Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, and that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime.
Whatever the case, the following year Rockwell was arrested, tried, and acquitted of the attempted murder,  although most of Boggs' contemporaries remained convinced of his guilt. A grand jury was unable to find sufficient evidence to indict him, convinced in part by his reputation as a deadly gunman and his statement that he "never shot at anybody, if I shoot they get shot! He's still alive, ain't he? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Salt Sermon and Danite. Battle of Crooked River. Missouri Executive Order Joseph Smith and the criminal justice system.
Attempted assassination of Lilburn Boggs. Reprinted by Dale R. Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved April 15, Regional Studies in Latter-day Saint History: Retrieved April 9, My Best for the Kingdom: The Historical Record, Volumes John Whitmer Historical Association. Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved April 16, The Missouri Mormon War collection. Retrieved 16 April Reprinted by the Book of Abraham Project at boap.
The Book of John Whitmer. Book of Abraham Project. Retrieved 20 April Missouri , Provo, Utah: Bushman, Richard L , Joseph Smith: Martin's Griffin , pp. Doniphan, Alexander June 12, , "Mormonism. Doniphan's Recollections of the Troubles of that Early Time. Yale University Press , retrieved 12 April Brooks, archived from the original on October 21, , retrieved December 31, Hamer, John, Northeast of Eden: Deseret Book , The Life and Confessions of John D.
Lee and the Life of Brigham Young, King, judge of the Fifth judicial circuit of the state of Missouri, at the Court-house in Richmond, in a criminal court of inquiry, begun November 12, , on the trial of Joseph Smith, Jr. Michael , The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power , Salt Lake City, Shepard and Stearns, archived from the original on 21 October , retrieved 14 April Van Wagoner, Richard S. Armed conflicts involving the United States Armed Forces. View agent, publicist, legal on IMDbPro.
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