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These connections are particularly apparent in the work of Patrick Chamoiseau who, in a photo-essay produced with Rodolphe Hammadi, reflected in a French Guianese context on the implications of these entangled histories, complex inter- and intra-colonial transportation flows, and the multi-directional memories as well as multi-layered sites to which they give rise. Although the book is based on a critique of the memorial landscape of the territory, the overtly ethnicized and whitened dimensions of which are accentuated in official memorialization, the emphases of its text-and-image-based analysis pre-empt the forms of postcolonial ruination to which Stoler would later allude.
Postcolonial ruins become an alternative to the formal memorialization of colonial statuary:.
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Chamoiseau refers to a body of representations of the bagne , but simultaneously seeks to move away from and beyond them: The photographs of ruination that the essayist takes as the trigger for his reflections are presented, however, in the context of a digressively disruptive mode of engagement: The response is a postcolonial poetics:.
From the ruins of the nineteenth-century penal colony emerge, through postcolonial creative practice, alternative narratives, and new critical and aesthetic approaches.
Au bagne (French Edition) eBook: Albert Londres: mail.tranquilitynorth.com: Kindle Store
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Penal tropes and postcolonial afterlives. Transcolonial histories, postcolonial memories. Postcolonializing the bagne Charles Forsdick. Gallimard produced a three-volume version in their Quarto series in Liverpool University Press, , pp. The article focuses on French Guiana and New Caledonia, and pays particular attention to the Kabyle rebels exiled in Melanesia following the revolt.
Other contemporary research has focused on other transcolonial axes, linking for instance French Indochina with the bagne , including that at Poulo Condore off southern Vietnam as well as others in West Africa most notably Libreville in Gabon. Kings, Convicts, Commemoration , ed.
For an overview of histories of the bagne , see Stephen A.
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University of Nebraska Press, See Dominique Kalifa, Biribi: Place,  , p. On the interrelationship of slavery, indenture, and convict labour in French Guiana, see Miranda Frances Spieler, Empire and Underworld: Harvard University Press, The implication of double peine or doublage was that those sentenced to less than eight years were obliged to spend the same period in the colony following their release, whereas those with longer sentences were transported for life.
Presses universitaires du Septentrion, Albert Londres, Au bagne Paris: Laffont, ; and Papillon dir. For comics devoted to penal colonies, see, for example, J. Theory, Practice or Process? Blackwell, , p.
Three Continents, , pp. Disruption and Dissent, to the Present , ed. Bloomsbury Academic, , pp. Routledge, , pp. The latter referred to a game of chance, a simplified version of bingo, popular in the period. Bleu autour, , pp. Edmond Garcin, of the Community party, was elected mayor from to In there were 4 candidates in the first round of municipal elections: In the second round the United Left, the Civil Society, and the Democratic Movement joined together to form the Left Union list which was renamed the "rainbow".
List of Successive Mayors . Agenda 21 sets the terms and conditions for sustainable development in Aubagne which includes providing free public transit , offering a recycling program, encouraging energy conservation and energy demand management, launching awareness campaigns in schools to promote sustainable development and eco-citizenship, and giving incentives for purchasing solar panels.
More than 4, individual bins and 15, recycling bags are available to residents.
The city of Aubagne conducts its environmental, social, and economic policies in collaboration with neighbouring communities to help enhance sustainable development and improve living conditions. Since 15 May municipal buses have been free and the Tramway of Aubagne will also be when it opens in This has reduced the commune's transportation-related ecological footprint: In the commune had 46, inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10, inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Aubagne is one of the most indebted cities in France. According to a ranking published by Le Journal du Net , Aubagne would place 3rd for debt per head of 3, Euros per capita - about 5 times the national average. Only Cannes and Levallois-Perret , much richer communes, are higher. The total indebtedness of The debt servicing payments have at the same time multiplied by 3.
The rating has changed from "A-" to "BBB-" - the lowest category for this investment type"  Subsequently the city has not wanted to pursue the issue of its credit status. Risky loans have been converted to fixed-rate borrowings: Investments in the commune are about half the average for French communes in the same stratum: Finally the Observatory of subsidies has repeatedly criticized the management of the city of Aubagne, particularly for subsidies not related to the commune or representing a "waste of public money". Aubagne is part of the "Top 20" of towns who have increased their taxes the most in The city ranks 12th in France for the highest increases in taxes in according to the website Challenges.