Gustav Noske gave the graveside speech. The United Mine Workers of America leadership and its membership, although resentful about this decision, decided against striking during wartime. The end of the war increased the distress of the coal miners, who experienced declining income and a rising cost of living. These conditions convinced the union leadership to demand higher wages and shorter hours as well as nationalization of the mines.
The rejection of these demands by the coal operators led to a nationwide coal stoppage that begun on November 1, , when about , rank-and-file UMWA miners struck nationwide, despite the fact that Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer had invoked the Lever Act, a wartime measure that made it a crime to interfere with the production or transportation of necessities, and obtained an injunction against the strike on October In Indiana County not a man at the organised mines appeared for work, and some of the unorganised miners also struck.
At the Rochester and Pittsburgh Coal Company, the dominant producer in the county, all mines closed, and 4, miners walked out. At the Clearfield Bituminous Coal Company, another major producer, almost all miners struck. Independent and non-union mines, however, continued operation. Facing criminal charges, union head John L. Lewis withdrew his strike call, though many strikers ignored his action.
As the strike dragged on into its third week, coal supplies were running low and public sentiment was calling for ever stronger government action. In the aftermath of WWI, the price of wool had dropped significantly, provoking an economic crisis in sheep-breeding Argentine Patagonia. The bosses organisation, the Sociedad Rural, rejected the demands and a general strike the first Patagonia Rebelde strike was declared on November 1, with most of the strikers being shearers and rural workers. They were forbidden, however, to leave the city and were ordered to report to the authorities every forty-eight hours.
He wrote for the labour and anarchist press. A , the latter grouped around Sebastien Faure. In their on-going pay dispute with the unions, employers in the Rhineland-Westphalian iron industry carry out their threat and precipitate the largest and most complete lock-out during the Weimar Republic, affecting around , workers.
The lock-out lasts until December 3, and although it was confined to the Rhine-Westphalian industrial area, it had consequences for the entire empire. On September 24, the metalworkers' unions in the Rhineland-Westphalian iron industry, the socialist Deutsche Metallarbeiter-Verband DMV , the Christian Metallarbeiterverband and the liberal Gewerkverein Deutscher Metallarbeiter, had announced a collective demand of a wage increase of 15 Pfennig per hour for all workers aged over 21 years old to be agreed by the employers' association, the Nordwestgruppe of the Vereins deutscher Eisen- und Stahlindustrieller Association of German Iron and Steel Industries aka the Arbeit-Nordwest, by the end of September.
Both sides then took part in the Reichsarbeitsgericht official conciliation procedure but to no avail, and on October 13 the employers' side announced that they would terminate all employment contracts and lock-out their employees on November 1. On October 26, the state conciliator Wilhelm Joetten announced a 6 Pfennig increase in the hourly rate and 2 Pfennigs on the piecework rate. Five days later, the trade unions accepted the arbitration, despite their "serious doubts".
The Arbeit-Nordwest refused to endorse it and locked out around , workers on November 1. On November 12, the Arbeit-Nordwest managed to persuade the Duisburg Arbeitsgerichtes Labour Court to throw out the Joetten arbitration award and, as a result, the union side made a series of concessions. However, the employers' decision and ensuing behaviour had caused indignation in the Reichstag and the SPD and KPD now demanded state support for the locked-out workers. On November 17 the Reichstag decided by a large majority to support the sacked workers with public funds. After separate discussion with both sides, representatives of the Reichsregierung government announced on November 30 a new conciliation procedure to be conducted by the Social Democratic Minister of the Interior, Carl Severing.
The employers quickly accepted the process, believing that it would favour their side and come up with a lower offer than that of Joetten, a possibility that the socialist DMV very much feared. However, they could not risk rejecting the government's offer and reluctantly agreed on December 2, despite considerable resistance from within its own ranks. The morning of the following day, the iron and iron-processing industries on the Ruhr re-opened their doors and the workers returned to work.
On December 21, , Severing delivered his decision: The Reichsarbeitsgericht ratified Severing's decision on January 22, Soviet troops in the Hungarian countryside go on the move, encircling Ferihegy Airport. The Soviet Ambassador Yuri Andropov is unable to supply a satisfactory explaination of the troops' movements. Nagy is told that 2 aircraft stand ready at Budapest airport is the government needs to escape. The Hungarian government responds to Soviet actions by announcing its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact and declares its neutrality.
It also asks the UN for support. Carrying flowers, the mourners chant: The protesters forced the gates of the park Beyazit a hotbed of protest in Turkey and burn American flags, but whilst a statement is being read, the police attack the crowd. Sixty activists are arrested and beaten. Perhaps the best recorded of the attacks in the Rhayader area is a first hand account describes the attempts of a Metropolitan Police Sergeant Thomas P.
Davies and his small band of Special Constables to thwart the determined attacks of large groups of local Rebeccaites: By the time he got there the place had been razed and the men had gone.
Translation of «sinalagmático» into 25 languages
The Sergeant followed but all was demolished by the time he reached there. The toll keeper here was an old woman called Sarah Rees who had received the same warning as the Keeper at the North gate. The Sergeant caught up with the rioters near the Bear Inn. They had warned the specials not to come too near and one who did so was hit with a musket. They marched four deep around the Lion and Castle The front and rear ranks carried muskets loaded with ball and the centre rank had blank. Two constables had been stationed at the Wye Bridge gate.
They were drawn off by two women who told them that the New Gate was being attacked. Immediately they had gone the Rebeccas demolished the gate and house. Considered vegetarianism as 'unscientific': Fought in the Spanish Revolution and was first president of the French section of the S. In the s Roumilhac created an agricultural company in the Rhone delta, enabling Spanish anarchist refugees to obtain legal residence permits. The police are directed to avoid using the emergency powers that were granted to them by Trepov on October 27th [14th]. In the grandiose demonstration, staged by the Bolsheviks to emphasise their growing power, Bauman's coffin is draped in red with six party members in leather as pall bearers and a man in black at its head swinging a palm branch.
By night torches were lit and Bauman's widow made a speech urging vengeance on the Tsarist government. Fights broke out with Black Hundred gangs. The street fighting of previous days between Black Hundreds and workers continues in St. On the third day of rioting the "pogrom reached such proportions that the bourgeoisie asked workers to organise self-defence. However, the forces were unequal, the Cossacks rushed at us. When all was smashed and looted, when the danger was threatened and the government itself, then only the authorities take steps to stop the pogrom. As the result of 25 acts of arson, buildings were destroyed by fire.
For comparison, during the October riots across Russia people were killed and 1, injured. It was reported that more than 10, Jews were left without means of livelihood, with the municipal duma having to allocate 10, roubles on October 24th. What is clear is that the pogrom was well organised and had been some time in planning - rumour of the possibility had spread well before October 31 [O.
Even if the authorities had not participated in its planning, though many believe they did, they certainly co-opted it in order to also attack the strikers and their supporters. She studied medicine in Madrid but serious fever attacks had made it impossible for her to continue her education far from the family home.
Having decided not to continue an attachment to a young count that she had met in Madrid, she told her father of her plans to make Evaristo her life partner. By then Evaristo was well known in Huesca as an anarchist activist. Lorenza returned to Berbegal and Evaristo, setting up home together. Every pupil would bring along a handful of beans and she would add the bacon and see to it that the dish of the day was prepared on the school stove while she got on with her teaching. In December she had had to flee Berbegal and moved to Barcelona.
There she became head of the Rationalist School in the Bonanova barrio up until Two months after surviving the heavy air raids inflicted on the city, they crossed the border into France along with several hundred thousand other refugees. Interned in the Vigan concentration camp, they spent nearly a year there with the rest of the female prisoners, many of whom were Barcelona workers and prostitutes from the Barrio Chino.
The promised fleet of ships due to ferry them all into exile failed to arrive at the port. His tragic end not without its grandeur has often been remembered by lots of surviving eye-witnesses and writers: Soon the living, incarcerated and tortured in Francoist concentration camps, would come to envy their dead comrades. As a result of her activities, Lorenza was arrested by the Gestapo but was freed en route whilst being taken to the St Michel prison in Toulouse under an escort of Vichy gendarmes. It was August 17, , the Second World War was drawing to an end but in their retreat from Toulouse the Nazis executed him and a sizeable group of captured resisters.
Like the rest of the refugees who had risked their lives fighting the Nazis she had another tough blow coming, as hard as or harder than the loss of Evaristo: Lorenza was to build herself a new life at the side of the anarchist writer and journalist Felipe Alaiz de Pablo who became a father figure to Zeika. Lorenza died in exile in Her daughter Zeika also died in exile, in Toulouse on August 1, The Industrial Workers of the World formally begins the Spokane free-speech fight — the first of a series of free speech fights that lasted up til the wartime repression of the IWW began in — begin a continuous series of street speeches in defiance of the recently introduced ordinance that banned street speeches, an ordinance directed against IWW organising.
On this day, one by one, IWW members mount a soapbox an overturned crate and begin speaking, upon which Spokane police yank them off the box and take them to jail. On the first day, Wobblies are arrested, beaten, and incarcerated. Within a month, arrests will mount to , including the fiery young Wobbly orator Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. The Spokane free-speech fight will end with the City revoking the ordinance.
It will inaugurate free-speech fights in other cities, and is considered one of the most significant battles to protect freedom of speech in American history. South Wales authorities enquire about the procedure for requesting military aid, in the event of disturbances caused by the striking miners. The Glamorgan Constabulary resources were stretched, as in addition to the Cambrian Combine dispute, there was a month-old 'Block Strike' in the neighbouring Cynon Valley; and the Chief Constable of Glamorgan, Lionel Lindsay, had by Sunday November 6 assembled imported police in the Tonypandy area.
In Aberaman on November 2 the first major scenes of violence had occurred. This, plus the appeal by the leaders, made the Aberdare strike headline news. Even ' The Times ' devoted a long article to it on the 4th. The overtly hostile coverage of the strike by the ' Western Mail ' was attacked by Stanton, and on the 3rd a ' Western Mail ' reporter was chased off the railway station by a crowd of strikers. The violence at Aberaman had happened when a train carrying about labourers who were still working at the pits was stormed at the Tonllwyd Crossing and several of the occupants were "badly mauled".
Later the same day, the houses of many colliery officials who were still working were stoned. By the 4th every colliery and most of the officials' houses were being picketed. As a contributor, Artelt moves beyond the demand for immediate release of the imprisoned, calling for the "overpowering of the militarism and the overthrow of the ruling class" and seeks to join hands with the shop stewards of the USPD. During this night the first leaflets are printed. A violent race riot breaks out on the day of the presidential election of , in Ocoee in Orange County, Florida.
African-American-owned buildings and residences in northern Ocoee were burned to the ground, and as many as African Americans may have been killed throughout the conflict. The African-Americans residing in Ocoee who were not direct victims of the race riot were later driven out by threats or force.
Ocoee would then become an all-white town and remain as such until sixty-one years later in Both land owners and payees of the poll tax who, when they turned up at the poll station, were told that they were not on the register, were turned away and told not to come back. Mose Norman returns to the polls later that evening with a shot gun. An altercation ensues, and Mose Norman is pistol whipped and sent away a second time.
Later that evening a lynch mob led by Colonel Sam Salisbury, a prominet white Ocoee resident and former chief of police of Orlando, went in search of Mose Norman. Told his was at last seen at July Perry's house, theyw ent there annd demanded the pair surrender. When they received no answer, the crowd tried to force their way into Perry's house. Two whites, Elmer McDaniels and Leo Borgard, were shot and killed as they attempted to enter the back door.
Salisbury was wounded in the arm. Later, a white mob stormed into Ocoee and burned 25 black homes, two churches and a Masonic lodge. The white mob then withdrew to gather reinforcements. By nightfall, over Klansmen from around the state of Florida and white Ocoee residents had collected inside the town and began a burning spree in the Black section of town.
The Black citizens fled for their lives into the orange groves, swamps and neighbouring towns. However, many were burned in their homes or shot as they tried to flee the infernos. In the aftermath, twenty five homes, two churches, and a masonic lodge were incinerated; and the death toll is said to have been above fifty. That night, and in the weeks that followed, the Ocoee area's black population — estimated at — disappeared.
On the morning of November 3rd, July Perry's body was found hanging from a lamppost. Mose Norman is never seen or heard from again. Blacks would not inhabit the city until sixty one years later in As the workers were retreating from the onslaught by the baton-wielding police, the commander ordered the police to open fire. Three workers were shot in the back, one fatally wounded.
Several unions demanded an inquiry, but the government refused to investigate the shootings. Further Soviet troops arrived in Hungary, increasing the number of Soviet divisions stationed in the country from five to seventeen. The newly arrived troops crew were mainly from Central Asia, and they were informed by their superiors that they will be fighting against German Nazis. Nagy protested to the Soviet ambasador Yuri Andropov about the troop movements and continued to keep the other ambassadors in Budapest informed of developments.
Another telegram was sent to the United Nations, which repeated the called for recognition of the neutrality of Hungary as a guarantee of the withdrawal of Soviet troops. Artillery batteries are positioned at key locations in Budapest. Lawrence's ' Lady Chatterley's Lover ' is found to not be obscene under the terms of the Obscene Publications Act After her liberation, she spent more than four years underground before escaping to Cuba in , where she was granted political asylum.
Authorities blamed electrical short circuit for Morocco's worst prison fire. Kayvan Sabehgi, a former US Army Ranger who served tours in both the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, on his way home after participating in the General Strike is detained and severely beaten by Oakland police.
He suffers a ruptured spleen and is hospitalised in an intensive care unit as a result of the beating. May 7] - [N. A notorious best-selling author of fairy tales and children's books, as well as his more scandalous novels, plays and films, which he had to repeatedly defend, both in public and in the courts, against the charges that his works were trivial, immoral and pornographic. His first literary works appeared in ' Der Eigene ' The Treasury , considered to be the first gay magazine and he was involved in the Gemeinschaft des Eigenen Community of the Self , a pioneering association campaigning for equal rights for homosexuals.
He was also imprisoned for fornication i. An Elephant Story for Kids; However, he was also a cultural nationalist, acting as a propagandist for the German Empire in America during WWI, and was eventually interned by the US administration. He was also an occultist associated with Aleister Crowley and Ernst 'Putzi' Hanfstaengl, who would later go on to become an ardent Hitler supporter. But in he suffered a general ban on his publications and, with the passing of the Nuremberg Laws in he left the Party and campaigned for exit visas for his Jewish friends.
Amongst his other works were the novel ' Alraune. Die Geschichte eines lebenden Wesens ' , which involved the artificial insemination of a prostitute with the sperm of a sex killer taken during his execution. The baby, Alraune or Mandrake , then grows up to pursue the head of the team involved in the experiment. Closer to the original is the silent classic starring Brigitte Helm in the lead role. A feral Novel of Scraps and Colours; She became involved in the anti-Carrancista movement around in the Maderista cause. Between August and November , Amelio was sent to the Gulf of Mexico on a commission to extort money from oil companies for the revolutionary cause.
In , she retired from the ranks of the army but rejoined in in support of Gen. Marcial Cavazos was killed and Amelio injured. Amelia Robles died on December 9, , when she was 95 years old. She was buried according to her last two requests: Revolutionaries on Negros Island part of the Visayas Islands in the Philippines meet and decide to begin their planned revolt on November 5 in an attempt to end Spanish control of the island and form a government run by the Negrense natives.
Workers would work side by side, performing the same job for the same pay, as a way of preventing employers from undermining one group by playing them off against the other. The only area of exception to this was the 'screwmen', the highly skill cotton bale compactors, a critical task that put them at the top of the labour force on the docks and allowed them to insist on the highest wages.
From through , they launched a series of strikes and responding lock-outs from employers that ended in the acceptance of their production rate and demands, protests that enjoyed the backing of other waterfront unions — both black and white — and the newly formed Dock and Cotton Council set up in October by the separate black and white unions to coordinate union activities on the docks.
The first strike began on November 3, when screwmen struck all employers who did not adhere to the new joint contract demands. Despite the fact that employers accused black unions of breaking the terms in their earlier separate contract and threatened them, the strike remained united and ended in early December ; by December 25, screwmen were packing on average bales per day.
The St Petersburg Soviet orders an end to the general strike. According to the Soviet history books, strikers are supposed to have returned to work in disciplined ranks. Cossery was a dandy who practised a type of contemplative idleness and lived most of his life unemployed. His novels, which explore the political and cultural pitfalls of the Middle East, display a biting wit and characters that display a common outlook: Initially put out by Luigi Preziosi, but is taken over at the end of by Carlo Tresca.
On board the Markgraf 57 more sailors and stokers are rounded up and, after protests from the rest of the crew, taken to Fort Herwarth. The alarm is raised but has no impact. The call put out by the sailors of the III. Eventually the people come round to supporting Artelt's call to free the prisoners and they move in the direction of the Arrestanstalt military prison.
Seven men are killed and 29 are severely injured, two of whom die later on. Some demonstrators return fire. After this incident, which is commonly viewed as the starting point of the German Revolution, the demonstrators disperse and the patrol withdraws. The mass protest turns into a general revolt. Located in the Holborn riverside district of South Shields and home to a sizeable Yemeni community, they hope to provoke a race riot. Fascist stewards were bused in from all over the country, but the anti-fascists mobilised thousands.
Fighting inside and outside the hall broke out, and the fascist buses from London, Leeds and Liverpool were bricked on their way out. The meeting turned out to be yet another failure for BUF. A new coalition government is formed and Hungarian-Soviet talks continue in the Parliament building. That night Budapest is completely encircled by Soviet troops and armour. Evicted by police they occupy the building for 6 days, during which time Nixon is re-elected.
Sandi was a leader of a march of over 3, people in Raleigh to free the Wilmington 10, ten young activists jailed on false charges to stop them from organising. In her work at a Cone Mills textile plant, she battled sexual harassment, low wages, and unhealthy working conditions. From inside he helped organise and eventually became president of the AFL-CIO union local after leading a strike in that helped the union grow from about 25 members to almost He studied at the Sorbonne in Paris during college, received his Masters degree in Divinity from Harvard in , then studied medicine at the University of Virginia.
As a medical student he organised health care workers to support the liberation struggles in southern Africa. The workers had chosen Bill to run for president of the local. He rejected a full scholarship to study history at the University of California at Berkeley and instead to help to unionise Duke Hospital workers. Cesar organised strike support for union struggles throughout NC and was a regular participant in the Goldkist strike, a campaign to organise poultry workers in Durham.
He also travelled extensively throughout the South, writing about class struggles for the Workers Viewpoint. Michael Nathan, chief of pediatrics at Lincoln Community Health Center in Durham, a clinic that helped children from low-income families. Nathan had been an anti-war and civil rights student activist at Duke University. During the German revolutions of she founded and was first president of the Humania Association, the largest revolutionary women's organisation.
Thousands march on Newport, Wales, to demand the release of imprisoned Chartist leader Henry Vincent and others. More than 20 people died and 50 were injured in the ensuing battle with the military. Hundreds of Chartists were arrested; leaders of the Newport Rising were found guilty of treason. Chartism was the first modern mass labour movement in England; its central issue was universal suffrage for men. In he co-founded, with the anarchist poet S. On the first day of the Nazi occupation, the Gestapo smashed up his apartment, arresting and interrogating him.
Arrested and interned a number of times, he also defended anti-Nazi resistance fighters in court, later defending those persecuted by Communism as well. The Union representatives agreed to ask their membership to consider a compromise for some reduced hours and double pay in return for a shorter working day and the meeting broke up to re-convene a week later on November Instead, George Livesey, the chair of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, introduced plans to smash the union, reduce costs and implement his grand and long dreamt of scheme for partnership of consumer, shareholder and workforce — the latter had been put to the board in the past and rejected but was now seen as a useful tool to help 'divide and rule' the workforce.
Many workers signed the month agreement which implicitly removed their right to strike, forfeiting their bonus if they broke the agreement for membership of the profit sharing scheme at once, sending their thanks "to the Employers — for their generous concession". An Italian shoemaker and illegalist living in Paris, his expropriations supported Intransigenti groups and their propaganda efforts.
He also supported the 'Cloche de Bois', an organisation discreetly helping those unable to pay their landlords: His pseudonym derived from a conflation of the words Klabautermann hobgoblin and Vagabund vagabond which appeared in the title of his first volume of poetry ' Morgenrot! A close friend of Hugo Ball, they went on to collaborate on poems under the joint pseudonym of Klarinetta Klaball following the confiscation of copies of ' Die Revolution ' and ' PAN ' for allegedly obscene poems by both Ball, for the poem ' Der Henker ', in the first and Klabund in 'PAN'. It is also claimed one of the many attributions to the name's origins that Dada first appeared in one of their jointly authored poems first performed by Marietta di Monaco in at the Simplicissimus cabaret in Munich.
Amongst his 25 plays, 14 novels,17 volumes of poetry and his adaptations from the Chinese is his drama ' Der Kreidekreis ' The Chalk Circle , based upon some of his Chinese poetry translations, that went on to be the inspiration for both Alexander von Zemlinsky's opera ' Der Kreidekreis ' and Bertolt Brecht's play ' Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis ' The Caucasian Chalk Circle; In October, Ciancabilla met Malatesta to do an interview for ' Avanti! This meeting and the response of the PSI Italian Socialist Party leadership to the discussion led Ciancabilla to leave the socialist party in disgust and to declare himself an anarchist.
Ciancabilla was one of the important Italian figures of the anarchist movement that emigrated to the US in the late s. Black Hundred outrages continue in Moscow, with two dozen workers and students killed. The newly installed Prime Minister Witte vigorously condemns the right-wing violence. Petersburg the Soviet, having called an end to the strike the previous day, cancels a mass funeral and demonstration that was set for November 5th, for fear of police action.
The prosecutor agreed and ordered the immediate release of the arrested. The demonstrators went to jail and solemnly brought out the killer, gaving him a standing ovation. Mikhalin was later rearrested and sentenced in June to one and a half years in prison for the equivalent of manslaughter.
At a retrial in March , after Mikhalin had appealed his sentence, he was convicted of murder in "a fit of temper" but his original sentence was not increased. A tax strike is proclaimed in several municipalities of the Marne.
Meaning of "sinalagmático" in the Spanish dictionary
During the morning, groups of armed mutineers move somewhat aimlessly from barrack to barrack and through the town. The crews do not take part in casting off, this has to be done by ensigns and deck officers.
Around sailors from the III. Squadron remain on shore. Meeting of shop stewards are held in the union house. During the early afternoon sailors in a large Wik Garnison barracks compound at the Tirpitz Hafen base in northern Kiel refuse orders: Karl Artelt organises the first soldiers' council, and soon many more are set up. The town commander and chief of the military police now admit that they no longer control the situation.
The governor of the navy station, Wilhelm Souchon, is now forced to negotiate, summonsing representatives of the rebels to submit their demands. Karl Artelt and other sailors go by car to the governor. On their car they carry a large red flag. Their demands are communicated to all navy units in Kiel by the governor at around Soldiers and workers take public and military institutions under their control and when, despite Souchon's promise, different troops advance to quash the rebellion, they are intercepted by the mutineers and are either sent back or join the sailors and workers.
By the evening, Kiel is firmly in the hands of approximately 40, rebellious sailors, soldiers and workers, as Wilhelmshaven is two days later. Later that evening, a meeting of sailors and workers representatives in the union house leads to the establishment of a soldier's and a worker's council.
That same evening the SPD deputy Gustav Noske arrives in Kiel and is welcomed enthusiastically, although he has orders from the new government and the SPD leadership to bring the rising under control. He goes on to have himself elected chairman of the soldiers' council and reinstates peace and order.
He was with the partisans of the 52nd Garibaldi brigade, checking lorries carrying German troops to the Swiss border, when one of the partisans became suspicious about a man in the corner of the fifth truck. He was wearing glasses, wrapped in a greatcoat with his helmet pulled down. One of the Germans explained that he was a "drunken comrade".
But the partisan remained dubious. Knowing that Italy's fascist dictator was attempting to flee the country, and the troop convoy had been given safe passage only on condition no Italians were hidden among the retreating soldiers, he called in the political commissar of his unit. But he didn't reply. I also shouted 'comrade'. So I got into the lorry. I went up to him and I said: It was as if I had given him an electric shock. However, he investigated the execution after the war and came to believe that Mussolini was shot the same day he was arrested, in contrast to the officially accepted version of events.
Tanks are used to drag bodies through the streets of Budapest as a warning to others who are still protesting. Nagy appeared on Radio Budapest at Today at daybreak Soviet forces started an attack against our capital, obviously with the intention to overthrow the legal Hungarian democratic government.
Our troops are still fighting; the Government is still in its place. I notify the people of our country and the entire world of this fact. Seconds later, the old National Anthem played i. A couple hours later, at 8. He would be forced to remain in Szolnok under Soviet protection much longer than anyone had predicted due to the heavy resistance the invaders faced. Even though 1, Russian tanks had rolled into Budapest and the Hungarian army had been rapidly destroyed, ordinary members of the Hungarian public - even children - continued fighting the Russian troops with machine guns.
They face a force comprised of 16 Soviet divisions, roughly , troops, and 2, tanks. The odds are heavily in the Soviet's favour. In the end, approximately 2,, Hungarians were killed though some sources quote figures up to 10 times that and 13, were wounded. Amongst those swept up in the mass arrests that followed, 3, were later executed in retaliation for the Hungarian's decision to take their destiny into their won hands. To flee the expected Soviet reprisals, over , Hungarians fled across the border into Austria and the West until that escape route was sealed off.
He was buried in an unmarked grave in the prison yard. By November 14, order had been restored and Soviet rule re-established. The strike and occupation would ultimately lead to the Massacre de Volta Redonda five days later. Witnesses claim that he was screaming during his arrest and complaining his handcuffs were too tight as two officers "pinned" him down.
He later became ill at Luton police station and was taken to hospital where he was pronounced dead. Debs had a long history in the trade and industrial union movements, beginning with several smaller unions, including the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, with whom he was involved in the disastrous Burlington Railroad Strike. He then played a key role in the founding of the American Railway Union ARU , and as president of the latter, and despite his initial misgivings over the success of industrial action at that time, he called an ARU boycott of the handling trains with of Pullman cars, in what became the countrywide Pullman Strike.
The then president Grover Cleveland sent the US Army in to break the strike, resulting in the death of 30 strikers and the blacklisting of thousands more. Debs was convicted on federal charges for defying a court injunction against the strike to stop obstructing the US Mail, serving six months in prison. Debs came out of prison a convinced socialist and Debs helped found the short-lived Social Democratic Party of America in , which three years later would form the core of the Socialist Party of America.
Debs would go on to be the SPA's candidate for president in , , , and - the final time from a prison cell. Debs would remain active within both the Socialist Party and the IWW, as would Haywood, but increasing friction over the IWW's direct action tactics and, in particular, Haywood's Cooper Union speech in December , when he effectively told a New York audience that the parliamentary road to socialism was a waste of time, led to Haywood's ejection from the party in early and the split between the SPA and the IWW.
The split resulted in Debs committing his time fully to the SPA and his various election campaigns, and on June 16, , Debs gave a speech in Canton, Ohio, urging resistance to the WWI military draft, resulting in his being arrested on June 30 and charged with ten counts of sedition. At his trial in September that year he offered no defence save for a two hour address to the court. He was found guilty on September 12 and at his sentencing hearing two days later he made a second, and still famous, speech.
On November 18, Debs was sentenced to ten years in prison and disenfranchised for life. At that hearing he uttered the following words: I said then, and I say now, that while there is a lower class, I am in it, and while there is a criminal element, I am of it, and while there is a soul in prison, I am not free. One of the protest demonstrations in Cleveland, Ohio on May 1, resulted in a mass brawl between the socialists, anarchists, communists, trade unionists and the unemployed on the march when part of the crowd was attacked by WWI veterans and others. The widespread rioting that ensued was eventually put down by mounted police and the army who deployed tanks , leaving two dead, dozens injured and arrested.
The Socialist Party headquarters was also ransacked by a mob. Debs ran for president in the election while in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary, receiving 3. The various calls for clemency for Debs in were strenuously opposed by the notorious Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer of the anti-radical 'Palmer Raids' fame and ultimately rejected by President Woodrow Wilson. However, in January , Palmer changed his mind and proposed clemency himself, citing Debs' deteriorating health.
Wilson rejected the call and it fell to Warren G. Harding on December 23, to commute Debs' sentence to time served. Debs time in prison ruined his health and he died of heart failure in the Lindlahr Sanatorium in Elmhurst, Illinois on October 20, , at the age of Apart from his various presidential bids, Debs probably remains best known today as the author of the prison critique, partly written whilst incarcerated, ' Walls and Bars: He also appeared as a historical figure in John Dos Passos ' U.
Some sources claim Sept. Best remembered by the clearly Stirner-influenced novel ' Sanin ' Best known for the 11 volume ' The Story of Civilization ' written in collaboration with his wife Ariel Durant, and published between and Wrote under a selection of pseudonyms including Ile Gales, Juan de la Barre and Silvestre del Campo for the libertarian press e. Like her partner Aleksandr Rodchenko, she was involved in the newspaper ' Anarkhiia ' but, unlike him, appears to not have been an active anarchist.
The revolt began in Central and Northern Negros in the Philippines. A peasant uprising takes place in the Chernigov province. Across the Empire, peasant unrest is reaching a crescendo, with increasing violence. The resolution adopted at the meeting made demands for the improvement of the legal and material condition of servicemen, as well as general political demands for a democratic republic, universal suffrage, and the abolition of the social estates.
Anti-government demonstrations in Kronstadt continue over the following days, culminating in the mutiny by the Garrison on November 8th. Martyr of freedom of consciousness. Following the brutal attack on their fellow workers six days previously in Everett, when 41 Wobbly free speech campaigners had been rounded up by a force of more than armed vigilantes and forced to run the gauntlet whilst being beaten with clubs, axe handles, guns, whips and rubber hoses loaded with shot, before being run out of town and forced to walk the 25 miles back to Seattle, the Wobblies planned to keep their promise to return in greater number.
On November 5, , a group of about young IWW members met at the IWW Hall in Seattle and then marched down to the docks, where they boarded the steamers Verona and Calista had bought tickets for the Verona and 40 for the Calista ,which then headed the 20 miles north to Everett.
Meanwhile in Everett, where some helpful person had started out a rumour that the Wobblies were planning to burn the town, Sheriff Donald McRae had lined up well armed 'citizen deputy' vigilantes in order to repel the "anarchist reds". As it pulled up on the dock, Sheriff McRae stepped forward and raised his hand, calling out "Boys, who's your leader? McRae thenn drew his pistol and told them they could not land. At that point a single shot rang out its source was never publicly identified but, given the imbalance in weaponry, it is highly likely that it came from a trigger-happy vigilante , followed by a massive volley of gun fire that lasted for about ten minutes.
Most came from the vigilantes on shore as only a hndful of Wobblies were armed. Those on board the Verona, who included ordinary non-IWW passengers, rushed to the opposite side of the ship, nearly capsizing the vessel. The ship's rail broke and a number of passengers fell into the water, an unknown number of whom drowned. Over bullets pierced the pilot house alone, and the captain of the Verona, Chance Wiman, was only able to avoid being shot by ducking behind the ship's safe. The captain then managed to back the boat away from the dock, then headed back to Seattle. Out in the harbour, Wiman warned off the approaching Calista and then raced back to Seattle.
On the dock two local businessman-deputies, Jefferson Beard and Charles Curtis, lay dying, shot in the back by their fellow vigilantes. Twenty others, including Sheriff McRae, were wounded. Another, Felix Baran , lay dying. While the 'official' count of IWW casualties was five dead and 27 wounded, an unknown number had fallen into the water and died of their wounds or were shot as they floundered in the water after the boat had hastily pulled away, their bodies later recovered surreptitiously from Port Gardner Bay.
There were also non-IWW casulties on board the Verona including Oscar Carlson, who was shot 11 times and unsuccessfully sued the steamboat company for his injuries. When the Verona and Calista returned to Seattle, men were arrested and either detained in the King County jail or hospitalised. Ultimately most were set free, but seventy-four were back to the Snohomish County jail in Everett, imprisoned, and ordered to stand trial for murder.
In the town itself, after the Verona and Calista had made good their escape, the local Everett Wobblies started their street rally anyway, and as a result, McRae's deputised citizens rounded them up and hauled them off to jail and for the following few days terror hung over Everett for several days as armed deputies policed the streets. As a result of the shootings, Governor Ernest Lister of the State of Washington sent companies of militia to Everett and Seattle to help maintain order.
Tracy was the first brought to trial on March 5, , charged with conspiracy to commit the murder of Sheriff's Deputy Jefferson Beard. Originally he was also charged with the murder of Deputy C. Curtis, but forensic evidence later indicated that Curtis was most likely killed by one of his fellow deputies, so that charge was quietly dropped.
Tracy was found not guilty on May 5 after a two-month trial and the other 73 Wobblies were released without trial shortly afterwards. There many of its sailors and stokers left the ship. It would later be included in Admiral Scheer's planned operations against the rebels, which fail to materialise. In the early hours of the morning a workers' council is established. Gustav Garbe, SPD, is elected chairman. Only the Food Authority is taken over directly by the worker's council. Still afraid of a counter attack from the military, the sailors remove the rank badges and weapons from their officers.
In different parts of the town patrols are fired upon from surrounding windows by, the rebels believe, officers who retain their weapons. These incidents result in 10 dead and 21 wounded. Town commander Heine is shot by a patrol when he resists his arrest. The naval command in Berlin pre-empts any government decision and sends a telegram to the high sea fleet command, claiming to do so with government consent: Army Corps shall shut off Kiel from the land side and the high sea command from sea side.
However the state secretary of the Imperial naval authority, Ritter v. The decision is postponed. That evening Prinz Heinrich, the brother of Kaiser Wilhelms flees from Kiel, carrying a red flag on his car. The business of every Estancia in southern Santa Cruz is paralyzed by the strike. Workers dominate the roads, moving in columns of 60, and men marching with red and black flag. Under the terms of the new laws voted in to repress anti-natalist propaganda, Jeanne and Eugene are each sentenced to one to two years in prison and fined francs.
In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the Proctor motion for a new trial is made. In he deserted the army in Seu d'Urgell and took refuge in France, settling in Dijon, where he became a mason. Arrested with him were 88 other male and female anarcho-syndicalists who stood trial in the Rhineland in early The latter had fought in the Jeunesses Libertaires de Calanda, Teruel, where he had been a farmer, and later in the Durruti Column.
As a refugee in France he had been a lumberjack, dying at the hands of the Stalinists rather than the Fascists. District Baross area , IX. The fight was much tougher than the Soviets had expected. Created by the revolutionaries, it broadcast from a bus that constantly moved around in the city so that it couldn't be located by the Soviets.
The trial of Bobby Seale is severed from the trial of what now becomes the Chicago Seven. Because of his courtroom outbursts after being refused permission to act as or have his own defence counsel , Bobby Seale has been bound and gagged during the trial since October 29th. Judge Julius Hoffman cites Seale for contempt and sentences him to four years in jail; a retrial is ordered on Seale's case.
A vegan, she also considers herself to be an anarchist. Maurice 'Manny' Carpel, ex Group member and 'freelance Searchlight researcher', was jailed for 2.
"En mi opinion": December
Hundreds of jailed left-wing militants have joined the death fast to protest being kept in isolation cells in 'F-type' high security prisons, where torture, beatings and abuse have been a persistent problem. In Athens the riot police attacked the demo of About a men from Arnold, Hucknall and other surrounding villages gathered at the seventh milestone on the Mansfield to Nottingham road to launch a new wave of attacks.
Petersburg City Council authorises a popular civic guard to replace the police. In contrast, the Moscow city City Council, fearful of handing police powers over to the left, the following day refuses to authorise the city's own popular militia. The Association of Manufacturers is formed in St.
Petersburg; it adopts a hard line policy against strikers. Anti-government demonstrations in Kronstadt continue. By now, strikers had successfully shut down all the local pits, except Llwynypia colliery. On November 6, miners became aware of the owners' intention to deploy strikebreakers, to keep pumps and ventilation going at the Glamorgan Colliery in Llwynypia.
This would lead to volent clashes between strikers and police over the following days. Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office. Slow to take action on land reform ,insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business.
Francisco Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education, angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Pascual Orozco,once an ally of Pancho Villa, raises a well equipped army of 6, in the north, supported by powerful hacienda landowners. Madero turns to Gen. Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozco. The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognises Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president.
Venustiano Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel. Guiterrez appoints Pancho Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power. Daughter and sister of anarchists, she joined the Juventudes Libertarias Libertarian Youth since its foundation in and is particularly involved in the activities of the artistic and theatrical group called Ni No Amo Dios Neither God Nor Master. They take over all the major government facilities, key communication, installations and vantage points in Petrograd with little opposition.
The 'Report on the Bisbee Deportations. Made by the President's Mediation Commission to the President of the United States' concludes that the deportations were "wholly illegal and without authority in law, either State or Federal. Luther Popp and Gustav Garbe speak against it. A motion to abandon their struggle is turned down unanimously.
Upon Lothar Popp's initiative all units elect representatives. Troops from Altona who were destined to be used in Kiel are ordered to put these down. The Seekriegsleitung naval command in Berlin affirms their orders from the day before. Scheer suggests to the Kaiser to withdraw the order, as he also has to admit that nothing can be achieved by military force any more, and the Kaiser agrees.
Mass demonstrations also continued in Wilhelmshaven, where the crowds manage to free arrested sailors there. Three days later, Berlin in turn holds protests, then the whole of Germany, marking the beginning of the Spartacist revolution. He was arrested himself following the apprehension of Sophie and Hans Scholl after an anti-war leaflet drop from the atrium at Ludwig Maximilians University. November 18 and 19 also given as her d. In southern Santa Cruz workers now dominated the roads, moving in columns of 60, and men marching with red and black flag, and the business of every Estancia was paralyzed by the strike.
At a meeting of strikers called during the night of November , Chilean worker Juan Farina proposed surrender and the vast majority of rural labourers supported his motion. Another worker, Pablo Schulz, argued that they should fight the army.
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Antonio Soto, seeing that such a fight was unlikely, argued that it is necessary to continue the strike, and finally suggested that they send two men with a white flag to parley with army troops to discuss conditions and guarantees, in addition to demanding compliance with the terms of the agreement negotiated last year. Its economy was based almost exclusively on cacao exportation for its export revenue and the collapse of international prices during and after WWI and the increased [the price of pounds of cocoa fell from 26 sucres, in January of , to 5.
Two days later on October 17, the workers of the U. When no response was forthcoming, the workers went on strike on October 19th. The General Manager J. Hundreds of workers from Guayaquil also came to show their support and after a few days, Dobbie agreed to meet their demands. The workers of Guayaquil took inspiration from this successful show of worker solidarity. Tram workers were in a particularly bad position, earning barely subsistence wages, working long hours, and being required to watch the trolleys on Sundays the one day they did not have to work , because any damage to them was paid for by their wages.
The assembly of workers issued 28 demands in total, which were swiftly rejected by company management. Meanwhile, the military moved soldiers into the city. Anarchists and civil guards clash for two days. A guard is killed, two militants die, four wounded, 19 taken prisoner. Sector de Esquerda Radical: Tampouco o seu xeito de ver o antagonismo social resposta a un criterio marxista: O radicalismo filo-socialista de Suarez Picallo, podemolo considerar como ponte entre a corrente xeral de esquerdas e un reducido sector de marxistas puros, que conviven no P.
Integran esta ala marxista: Polo demais, Seoane sendo como era do P. Levado por un prurito teorizante manifestaba: Nun artigo desta serie se pronuncia por un: Podemos considerar como declaradamente independentista a Bieito Carballo e como probabeis: Xa dixemos noutra parte que o P. Esta plasticidade e posibilismo do P. Por outra banda, compre salientar que Alvaro das Casas non se manifestou como arredista perante o tempo que permaneceu no P. Agora ben, este persoeiro dura ben pouco no P. De feito, en manifestaba o seu desexo de que os traballadores sentisen o nacionalismo En efecto, dentro das coordenadas da democracia representativa nas que se situa o P.
Para o partido obxeto de estudio a democracia era unha especie de panacea: O ano seguinte volve a teimar nelo: Por suposto o P. Coidamos que o proceder do P. O radical democratismo do P. Sin embargo, no primeiro bienio o P. Deica este momento o P. Por todo elo o P. Ademais, a filial do P. E engadamos que no manifesto difundido o 25 de xullo de proclamaba que: No segundo bienio o P. En efecto, o cacique debe ser ante todo propietario, sendo isto inexcusable requisito.
Como ben sinala Barreiro. En efecto, coa chegada da II. Deste xeito Alvarez Gallego considera que os caciques son: Con todo o cal —conclue Villar Ponte— pouco ben fan Coplementariamente, os segretarios xudiciais son frecuentemente acusados de actuar caciquilmente Con elo o P. Afirma que tal perspectiva era dende logo bastante remota, pero con todo posible. En efecto, o P. Deste xeito, temos que P. Procurar no texto a palabra ou frase: Convencidos delo examinaremos con certo vagar a doutrina do P.
Especialmente Risco sintonizaba coa obra de Oswaldo Spengler. Claramente en Risco, e tenuemente no conxunto dos intelectuais do P. A similitude entre o programa das Irmandades de e o do P. Con todo o P. En certo modo, supera o P. Pouco antes de fundarse o P. Hemos dicho, pues, que los elementos o caracteres de Ia nacionalidad son cinco. Non creou unha "Communanza di vita e di conscienza sociale" [ Esto imponnos a obriga de sernos cada vez mais galegos. O enxebrismo ten este outo senso d'humanidade, [ Sobre d'el ten un direito, unha sorte de dominio eminente a humanidade.
Niste medio, que pode facer o P. Semella que canta mais libertade se permita aos extremistas, mais animados se sinten a abusaren d'ela.
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C-o pobo, en fin de contas, sempre aconteceu o mesmo. Se a Galiza ten de se redimir [ Diputados, si hay una lucha perfectamente explicada, perfectamente delimitada, [ E ademais a diferencia entre o atinguido nos dous casos. Hai que botar abaixo casque todo o eisistente e construir de novo. Erguel-os nunha soia areia [ Son "pucheirazos" con todal-as da lei. Ou el nos mata ou o matamos. Beramendi, Justo, Vicente Risco no nacionalismo galego , Vol. Aguilar, Madrid, , pp.
La bandera de Galicia , Ourense Nova Galiza , xa cit. Desagreguemos os datos por provincias: Tampouco a grande cibdade pol-o que ten de acampamento da moitedume. Nas asambleas do P. Colectivismo agrario y otros escritos; Alianza, Madrid.