Also called a hole in one. Apron The grass surface on the perimeter of the green that separates it from the surrounding fairway or rough. Also known as the fringe.
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Automatic two-putt is not allowed within the rules of golf, but courses can institute it as a local rule in casual play when conditions warrant. The player who is away should always play first. The team score on each hole is the lowest score obtained by one of the team members. This deviation may be a result of a number of factors or combination of factors including uneven surface, grain of the grass, how firmly the putt is struck or, in extreme circumstances, wind. Similar to a chip shot, but played from a greater distance. It is considered a hazard under the Rules of Golf.
Players are responsible for the actions of their caddies. Players cannot receive advice from anyone other than their caddy or partner. Snow and ice can also be taken as casual water, as well as water that overflows the banks of existing water hazards. You may take relief from casual water no nearer to the hole according to the rules of golf. A player is allowed to carry up to fourteen 14 clubs during a round of golf.
Striking the ball with the center of the clubface maximizes distance and accuracy.
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Dimples, by reducing drag, allow a golf ball to stay in the air for a longer flight than would be possible with a smooth ball. Also called an Albatross. An overdone draw usually becomes a hook. An overdone fade will appear similar to a slice. An additional smaller flag, or other marker, is sometimes positioned on the flagstick to indicate the location of the hole front, middle, or back on the green. The game is played from raised artificial teeing surfaces using a tee and it has its own handicap system.
There are three main categories of ownership and management of a golf course: A private course is owned and managed by a golf club on behalf of its members, on a non-profit basis. Many of the courses opened during the golf booms in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are of this type. Others allow visitors at certain times but may insist on advance booking and proof of golfing competency.
A commercial course is owned and managed by a private organisation and is operated for profit. They may be constructed to provide a core or supplementary attraction for visitors to a hotel or commercial resort, as the centrepiece to a real estate development, as an exclusive Country Club , or as a "Pay and Play" course open to the general public. A municipal course is owned and managed by a local government body for the benefit of residents and visitors. Some of the historic Scottish golf courses, including St Andrews and Carnoustie fall into this category along with Bethpage in the USA and many others of less renown.
It is increasingly common for the management of municipal courses to be contracted out to commercial or other organisations or the course to be sold or shut down completely. Many commercial and municipal establishments have associated golf clubs, who arrange competitions for their members on the courses and may provide clubhouse facilities. In the UK particularly, some older private members clubs have an associated "Artisan" club, originally established to provide low-cost golf with limited playing rights in exchange for unpaid work on the course.
Environmental concerns over the use of land for golf courses have grown since the s. Specific issues include the amount of water required for irrigation and the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in maintenance, as well as the destruction of wetlands and other environmentally important areas during construction.
The United Nations estimates that, worldwide, golf courses consume about 2. Many golf courses are now irrigated with non-potable water and rainwater.
In , the U. Environmental Protection Agency prohibited the use of Diazinon on golf courses and sod farms because of its negative impact on bird species. Environmental concerns, along concerns with cost and human health, have led to research into more environmentally sound practices and turf grasses.
Golf course superintendents are often trained in the uses of these practices and grasses. This has led to significant reduction in the amount of both water and chemicals on courses. Golf course turf is an excellent filter for water and has been used in communities to cleanse grey water , such as incorporating them into bioswales. The use of natural creeks and ponds is generally desirable when designing a golf course for their aesthetics and the increase in playing difficulty. However, such areas also typically include wetlands within the flood plain that are unsuitable for golfing and are often filled in and raised to remain dry.
In arid areas, dry creek beds can be marked as "water hazards", but the importation of non-native grasses and other plant life can have a detrimental effect on native landscapes, often requiring non-native soil and large quantities of water and fertilizer to maintain the course. In these areas, course builders are often prohibited from growing and maintaining non-native grass on areas of the course other than the fairway, or even on the fairway itself, in which case only greens are allowed to have grass.
In these cases, the course designer must work with the Corps of Engineers to plan a course layout that protects environmentally sensitive areas, provides for a means of quick escape in case of flooding, and does not invite players to hit into or toward controlled structures such as levees or dams. Some environmentalists and other activists continue to lobby against the building of new golf courses, claiming they may impede corridors for migrating animals and damage sanctuaries for birds and other wildlife, though some courses have become havens for native and non-native creatures.
A result of modern equipment is that today's players can hit the ball much farther than previously. As a result, because of demand from course customers who possess this enhanced equipment, and also out of an expressed concern for safety, golf course architects have had to lengthen and widen golf courses.
Where a 7,yard course used to be a great rarity, courses measuring 7,yards are now not uncommon, and courses of 8,yards are being contemplated. All this has led to a ten-percent increase in the acreage required to build a typical course. At the same time, water restrictions established by communities have forced courses to limit the amount of maintained turf grass.
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While most modern hole golf courses occupy as much as 60 hectares acres of land, the average course has 30 hectares 74 acres of maintained turf. Golf courses can be built on sandy areas along coasts, on abandoned farms, among strip mines and quarries, and in deserts and forests. Many Western countries have instituted environmental restrictions on where and how courses are allowed to be built. In some parts of the world, attempts to build courses and resorts have led to protests, vandalism, and violence.
Populists perceive golf as an elitist activity, and thus golf courses become a target for popular opposition. Resisting golf tourism and golf's expansion has become an objective of some land-reform movements, especially in the Philippines and Indonesia. In the Bahamas , opposition to golf developments has become a national issue. Residents of Great Guana Cay and Bimini , for example, are engaged in legal and political opposition to golf developments on their islands, for fear the golf courses will destroy the nutrient-poor balance on which their coral reef and mangrove systems depend.
In Saudi Arabia and elsewhere in arid regions, golf courses have been constructed on nothing more than oil-covered sand. Players may use a roller on the "greens" to smooth the intended path before putting. A course in Coober Pedy , Australia, consists of nine holes dug into mounds of sand, diesel fuel, and oil, with no grass appearing anywhere on the course.
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Players carry a small piece of astroturf from which they tee the ball. Other Australian golf courses in locations where water is scarce or water conservation is a priority sometimes feature "scrapes" in place of greens. These are made of fine dirt which requires raking between uses but does not require watering. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Golf course disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved 10 September St Andrews , Fife , Scotland: Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Retrieved 16 September Phillip Jennings Turf Farms. Retrieved 2 March Grass types make big difference". Retrieved 12 November Dictionary of the Scots Language.
Scottish Language Dictionaries, Edinburgh. Retrieved 16 July St Andrews Links Trust. Archived from the original on 4 July Archived from the original on 3 August Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 25 February The English Golf Boom, —". History Glossary Outline Rules penalties playoffs etiquette Stroke play scoring handicap Match play four-ball alternate shot Golf course links teeing ground hazards Equipment golf clubs golf ball tee.
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