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By measuring dialogue, we have much more objective view of gender in film. Many of readers are drawing conclusions that were anecdotally obvious to women in the film industry. But nobody wanted to do the grunt work of gathering the data. We spent weeks just matching scripts to IMDB pages. All of our sources are available in this Google Doc and as much data as we can share without getting sued is available here on Github.

Here's an FAQ that addresses concerns about the methodology and data.

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Commenters were quick to point out that the Bechdel Test is flawed and there are justifiable reasons for films to fail i. By measuring dialogue, we have much more objective measure of gender inclusivity. Many of the findings are anecdotally obvious to women in the film industry. Lately, Hollywood has been taking so much shit for rampant sexism and racism. How many movies are actually about men? What changes by genre, era, or box-office revenue? What circumstances generate more diversity? The pianists themselves observe in CD booklet notes that the works contain Beethovenesque 'bravura passagework, powerful symphonic cadences, [and] diabolical four-part fugues.

Ahuvia explains that he discovered these transcriptions when Leon Fleisher, his teacher at Baltimore's Peabody Institute, ordered his students to examine them as a way of revivifying Beethoven's spirit at the keyboard beyond his piano sonatas. If you wanted to hear a Beethoven string quartet, you had to seek out a live quartet performance, or you could simply play the piece on the piano, usually in an arrangement for one piano four hands. Thousands of these arrangements existed, although few remain in print.

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What is more, they are rewarding to play and to hear, which is not always the case with four-hand arrangements. Stephanie Ho and Saar Arhuvia began investigating the four-hand Beethoven quartets at the suggestion of their teacher Leon Fleisher, who encouraged his students to probe Beethoven beyond the iconic 32 solo piano sonatas. Aside from their impeccably calibrated ensemble work on all levels, Ho and Arhuvia bring a mindful, chamber-like aesthetic to these scores in terms of motivic interplay, balances, and dynamic scaling.

Tempos for faster movements never exceed what strings can do comfortably; if anything, they tend to fall on the conservative side. Yet this allows for the Op. On the other hand, most quartets can handle Op. By contrast, the Op. New Focus Recordings is an artist led collective label featuring releases in contemporary creative music of many stripes, as well as new approaches to older repertoire. Listen to full streaming tracks while you browse the site.

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Click on the button to open up the radio player. Home Catalogue News About Contact. DUO Stephanie and Saar: New Focus Recordings Catalog Number: Cicero's discussion is more parochial, focusing on the improvement of the participants' own state, the Roman Republic in its final stages. In antiquity, Plato's works were largely acclaimed, but a few commentators regarded them as too theoretical.

In this work, Tacitus undertakes the prosaic description and minute analysis of how real states are governed, attempting to derive more practical lessons about good versus bad governance than can be deduced from speculations on ideal governments. In the pivotal era of Rome's move from its ancient polytheist religion to Christianity, Augustine wrote his magnum opus The City of God: Again, the references to Plato, Aristotle and Cicero and their visions of the ideal state were legion: Augustine equally described a model of the "ideal city", in his case the eternal Jerusalem , using a visionary language not unlike that of the preceding philosophers.

Islamic philosophers were much more interested in Aristotle, but not having access to Aristotle's Politics , Ibn Rushd Averroes produced instead a commentary on Plato's Republic. He advances an authoritarian ideal, following Plato's paternalistic model. Absolute monarchy, led by a philosopher-king, creates a justly ordered society. This requires extensive use of coercion, [15] although persuasion is preferred and is possible if the young are properly raised. Demonstrative knowledge via philosophy and logic requires special study. Rhetoric aids religion in reaching the masses.

Following Plato, Ibn Rushd accepts the principle of women's equality. They should be educated and allowed to serve in the military; the best among them might be tomorrow's philosophers or rulers.

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He uses examples from Arab history to illustrate just and degenerate political orders. Hegel respected Plato's theories of state and ethics much more than those of the early modern philosophers such as Locke , Hobbes and Rousseau , whose theories proceeded from a fictional " state of nature " defined by humanity's "natural" needs, desires and freedom. For Hegel this was a contradiction: Therefore, these philosophers unwittingly projected man as an individual in modern society onto a primordial state of nature.

Plato however had managed to grasp the ideas specific to his time:. Plato is not the man to dabble in abstract theories and principles; his truth-loving mind has recognized and represented the truth of the world in which he lived, the truth of the one spirit that lived in him as in Greece itself. No man can overleap his time, the spirit of his time is his spirit also; but the point at issue is, to recognize that spirit by its content. For Hegel, Plato's Republic is not an abstract theory or ideal which is or too good for the real nature of man, but rather is not ideal enough, not good enough for the ideals already inherent or nascent in the reality of his time; a time when Greece was entering decline.

One such nascent idea was about to crush the Greek way of life: Such individual freedoms were excluded from Plato's Republic:. Plato recognized and caught up the true spirit of his times, and brought it forward in a more definite way, in that he desired to make this new principle an impossibility in his Republic. Greece being at a crossroads, Plato's new "constitution" in The Republic was an attempt to preserve Greece: Accordingly, in ethical life, it was an attempt to introduce a religion that elevated each individual not as an owner of property, but as the possessor of an immortal soul.

In his Plato und die Dichter Plato and the Poets , as well as several other works, Hans-Georg Gadamer describes the utopic city of the Republic as a heuristic utopia that should not be pursued or even be used as an orientation-point for political development. Rather, its purpose is said to be to show how things would have to be connected, and how one thing would lead to another—often with highly problematic results—if one would opt for certain principles and carry them through rigorously.

This interpretation argues that large passages in Plato's writing are ironic , a line of thought initially pursued by Kierkegaard. The city portrayed in the Republic struck some critics as harsh, rigid, and unfree; indeed, as totalitarian. Karl Popper gave a voice to that view in his book The Open Society and Its Enemies , where he singled out Plato's state as a dystopia. Popper divorced Plato's ideas from those of Socrates, claiming that the former in his later years expressed none of the humanitarian and democratic tendencies of his teacher.

In particular, Popper accuses Plato of betraying Socrates. Gilbert Ryle , reviewing Popper's text just two years after its publication [23] and agreeing with him, wrote that Plato "was Socrates' Judas. He argues that Plato has no interest in what are commonly regarded as the problems of justice—the resolving of disputes between individuals—because Plato has redefined justice as "keeping one's place".

For instance, there is evidence in the dialogue that Socrates himself would not be a member of his 'ideal' state. His life was almost solely dedicated to the private pursuit of knowledge. More practically, Socrates suggests that members of the lower classes could rise to the higher ruling class, and vice versa, if they had 'gold' in their veins—a version of the concept of social mobility. The exercise of power is built on the ' noble lie ' that all men are brothers, born of the earth, yet there is a clear hierarchy and class divisions.

There is a tri-partite explanation of human psychology that is extrapolated to the city, the relation among peoples. There is no family among the guardians, another crude version of Max Weber's concept of bureaucracy as the state non-private concern. Together with Leo Strauss, Voegelin considered Popper's interpretation to be a gross misunderstanding not only of the dialogue itself, but of the very nature and character of Plato's entire philosophic enterprise.

Some of Plato 's proposals have led theorists like Leo Strauss and Allan Bloom to ask readers to consider the possibility that Socrates was creating not a blueprint for a real city, but a learning exercise for the young men in the dialogue. There are many points in the construction of the "Just-City-in-Speech" that seem contradictory , which raise the possibility Socrates is employing irony to make the men in the dialogue question for themselves the ultimate value of the proposals.

In turn, Plato has immortalized this 'learning exercise' in the Republic. One of many examples is that Socrates calls the marriages of the ruling class ' sacred '; however, they last only one night and are the result of manipulating and drugging couples into predetermined intercourse with the aim of eugenically breeding guardian-warriors. Strauss and Bloom's interpretations, however, involve more than just pointing out inconsistencies; by calling attention to these issues they ask readers to think more deeply about whether Plato is being ironic or genuine, for neither Strauss nor Bloom present an unequivocal opinion, preferring to raise philosophic doubt over interpretive fact.

Leo Strauss's approach developed out of a belief that Plato wrote esoterically. The basic acceptance of the exoteric - esoteric distinction revolves around whether Plato really wanted to see the "Just-City-in-Speech" of Books V-VI come to pass, or whether it is just an allegory. Strauss never regarded this as the crucial issue of the dialogue. He argued against Karl Popper's literal view, citing Cicero 's opinion that the Republic's true nature was to bring to light the nature of political things.

The city founded in the Republic "is rendered possible by the abstraction from eros". An argument that has been used against ascribing ironic intent to Plato is that Plato's Academy produced a number of tyrants , men who seized political power and abandoned philosophy for ruling a city. Despite being well-versed in Greek and having direct contact with Plato himself, some of Plato's former students like Clearchus , tyrant of Heraclea ; Chaeron , tyrant of Pellene ; Erastus and Coriscus , tyrants of Skepsis ; Hermias of Atarneus and Assos ; and Calippus , tyrant of Syracuse ruled people and did not impose anything like a philosopher-kingship.

However, it can be argued whether these men became "tyrants" through studying in the Academy. Plato's school had an elite student body, part of which would by birth, and family expectation, end up in the seats of power.

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Additionally, it is important to remember that it is by no means obvious that these men were tyrants in the modern, totalitarian sense of the concept. Finally, since very little is actually known about what was taught at Plato's Academy, there is no small controversy over whether it was in fact even in the business of teaching politics at all. Many critics, both ancient and modern like Julia Annas , have suggested that the dialogue's political discussion actually serves as an analogy for the individual soul, in which there are also many different "members" that can either conflict or else be integrated and orchestrated under a just and productive "government.

This view, of course, does not preclude a legitimate reading of the Republic as a political treatise the work could operate at both levels. It merely implies that it deserves more attention as a work on psychology and moral philosophy than it has sometimes received. The abovementioned views have in common that they view the Republic as a theoretical work, not as a set of guidelines for good governance.

However, Popper insists that the Republic, "was meant by its author not so much as a theoretical treatise, but as a topical political manifesto" [30] and Bertrand Russell argues that at least in intent , and all in all not so far from what was possible in ancient Greek city-states, the form of government portrayed in the Republic was meant as a practical one by Plato. One of Plato's recurring techniques in the Republic is to refine the concept of justice with reference to various examples of greater or lesser injustice.

However, in The Concept of Injustice , [32] Eric Heinze challenges the assumption that 'justice' and 'injustice' form a mutually exclusive pair. Heinze argues that such an assumption traces not from strict deductive logic, but from the arbitrary etymology of the word 'injustice'. Heinze critiques what he calls 'classical' Western justice theory for having perpetuated that logical error, which first appears in Plato's Republic , but manifests throughout traditional political philosophy, in thinkers otherwise as different as Aristotle , Aquinas , Locke, Rousseau , Hegel and Marx.

In , a survey of over 1, academics and students voted the Republic the greatest philosophical text ever written. Julian Baggini argued that although the work "was wrong on almost every point, the questions it raises and the methods it uses are essential to the western tradition of philosophy.

The unreal art of realistic dialogue

Without it we might not have philosophy as we know it. In fiction, Jo Walton 's novel The Just City explored the consequences of establishing a city-state based on the Republic in practice. The Republic is generally placed in the middle period of Plato's dialogues—that is, it is believed to be written after the early period dialogues but before the late period dialogues.

However, the distinction of this group from the early dialogues is not as clear as the distinction of the late dialogues from all the others. Nonetheless, Ritter, Arnim, and Baron—with their separate methodologies—all agreed that the Republic was well distinguished, along with Parmenides , Phaedrus and Theaetetus. However, the first book of the Republic , which shares many features with earlier dialogues, is thought to have originally been written as a separate work, and then the remaining books were conjoined to it, perhaps with modifications to the original of the first book.

Several Oxyrhynchus Papyri fragments were found to contain parts of the Republic, and from other works such as Phaedo , or the dialogue Gorgias , written around CE. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from The Republic Plato.

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Republic Title page of the oldest manuscript: Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Problem of universals , Allegory of the Cave , and Theory of Forms. Talk of the Nation. His Philosophy and his life, allphilosophers. Lorenz, Hendrik 22 April Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Nails, Debra , The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato and Other Socratics.

Plato in Twelve Volumes. Brill, see review by David C. Mirhady in Bryn Mawr Classical Review. For earlier consideration of the similarities, see H. Thesleff, Studies in Platonic Chronology , Helsinki , pp. Eucken, Isokrates , Berlin , pp. Both Thesleff and Eucken entertain the possibility that Isocrates was responding to an earlier version of Republic than the final version we possess. The History of Islamic Political Thought 2nd ed.

The Philosophy of Popper. The Spell of Plato , New York: University of Chicago Press, , p. The City-Soul Analogy, G. The Spell of Plato, New York: Retrieved March 14, Seven virtues in Christian ethics. Paul the Apostle 1 Corinthians Prudentius , Psychomachia People: Zostrianos Letter of Peter to Philip. Melchizedek Thought of Norea Testimony of Truth.

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